Chinese Ambassador to Latvia: Chinese and US leaders do not want to start a "new Cold War" and will build non-confrontational relations

Chinese Ambassador Liang Jianquan answers Neatkarīgā's questions.
01.12.2021. JPJuris Paiders
©Ķīnas vēstniecība Latvijā

I expressed the opinion that the doctrine of a "climate neutral" and "green" economy is a weapon of 21st-century neo-colonialism. China's leader Xi Jinping did not attend the COP26 Glasgow climate change summit. What is the PRC's position on the idea of setting strong climate standards for the next decades? China is currently facing an energy shortage. What is the cause and how could it affect the world economy?

No country can face the global climate challenges alone. All countries need to work together to tackle them. China places great importance on the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 26) and has played an active and constructive role in making the Conference a success. President Xi Jinping's written speech outlined China's ideas on global climate governance, making it clear that all parties should build on existing foundations to strengthen mutual trust, focus on practical cooperation and accelerate the green transition, pointing the way to ensuring the success of the Conference.

China pays even greater attention to addressing climate change in national governance, adheres to the concept of green development, accelerates the emergence of a green development mode and way of life, and promotes the comprehensive green transformation of economic and social development. President Xi Jinping's idea that "clear waters and green mountains are as good as mountains of gold and silver" has become a consensus among the whole of Chinese society. China announced that it would strive to achieve carbon capping by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060, and developed a national action plan and concrete policies and measures to this end. As the world's largest developing country, this means that China will complete the world's largest reduction in carbon intensity in the shortest time in world history, reflecting China's strong commitment to tackling climate change. China is serious about reducing carbon emissions and pursuing green development and will deliver on its promises.

Since this year, due to the continued recovery of the Chinese economy and the rise in international energy commodity prices, as well as the demand for heating in winter, the energy market has been under pressure. The Chinese government has taken timely, decisive, and effective measures to focus on people's livelihoods, strengthen energy supply guarantees and stabilize the energy supply-demand balance. At present, the Chinese economy maintains a positive momentum and will continue to make important contributions to the global economic recovery and development.

What are your expectations about the success of the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic Games which are taking place next year from February 4 till 20? There are some rumors about an international boycott. Is it the right time for an Olympic Games without spectators?

The Olympic Games are a sporting event that people all over the world look forward to. In just over two months' time, Beijing will host the Winter Olympics for the first time, becoming the first city to host both the Winter and Summer Olympic Games. Preparations for the Beijing Winter Olympics and the Winter Paralympics are now well underway. A number of competition and provision tests are currently being carried out in the three competition areas of the Beijing Winter Olympic Games. It is worth mentioning that all venues for the Winter Olympic Games will implement a 100% green electricity supply and neutralize all carbon emissions produced. The Beijing Winter Olympics is now delivering on its promise of carbon neutrality and its pledge to "engage 300 million people in ice and snow sports".

Since the preparations for the Beijing Winter Olympics, they have received much attention and support from the international community. The motto of the Beijing Winter Olympic Games and Paralympic Winter Games, "Together for a shared future", was officially unveiled a short time ago. The Winter Olympic Games and the Paralympic Winter Games are the stage for Winter Olympic athletes around the world. They are the real heroes. The politicization of sport violates the spirit of the Olympic Charter and harms the interests of athletes from all countries and the international Olympic goal. All sectors of the international community, including several national governments, Olympic Committees and the International Olympic Committee, have clearly opposed this flawed practice. We believe that, with the joint efforts of all parties, China will definitely deliver a simple, safe and wonderful Olympic Games to the world.

The 4th China International Import Expo was held without direct international travelers. Can you describe the success of this event during the pandemic?

The 4th China International Import Expo was held online and offline as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. Nearly 3,000 companies from 127 countries and regions gathered at the expo, with a total estimated turnover of 70.72 billion USD. Companies from developed, developing and least developed countries, including 281 of the world's top 500 best and industry-leading companies, actively participated in the fair. It is worth mentioning that the Latvian company Stenders has also participated in the fair three times with fruitful results.

At the opening ceremony, Chinese President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech entitled "Let the Breeze of Openness Bring Warmth to the World", in which he stressed that openness is a distinctive symbol of modern China. China will steadfastly share market opportunities with the world, promote a high level of openness and safeguard the common interests of the world. Under the circumstances of a pandemic sweeping the world economy, this import expo has created a platform for exchange and cooperation among enterprises from different countries and once again brought the "power of China" to the global economic recovery. China encourages more Latvian enterprises to actively explore the Chinese market and promote the further development of bilateral economic and trade relations.

Xi Jinping attended the general debate of the 76th session of the United Nations General Assembly and delivered an important speech. What were the most important messages from China to other countries?

This year marks the 50th anniversary of the People's Republic of China's restoration of its rightful place at the UN, as well as the 30th anniversary of Latvia's accession to the UN. After attending several high-level meetings on the 75th anniversary of the founding of the UN last year, President Xi Jinping once again participated in the general debate of the General Assembly by video and delivered an important speech, mainly conveying the following messages:

First, global cooperation to fight the pandemic must be promoted. Today, the pandemic is still raging around the world and human societies have changed dramatically. People and their lives must be a priority, science must be respected, a scientific approach must be adopted, and the laws of science must be followed. We must both follow the targeted routine protocols of Covid-19 and take emergency response measures, and we must control the pandemic and promote economic and social development, as well as strengthen joint international prevention and control. China will strive to provide 2 billion doses of vaccines to foreign countries throughout the year. On the basis of the 100 million USD donation to the Covax plan, China will donate a further 100 million doses of vaccine to developing countries free of charge over the course of the year. China will continue to support and participate in the global scientific tracking of the virus and resolutely opposes any form of political manipulation.

Second, we must promote shared global development. We must revitalize the economy, promote stronger, greener and healthier global development, and collectively promote global development to a new level of balance, coordination and inclusiveness. China has put forward a global development initiative that prioritizes development that is people-centered, inclusive, innovation-driven, in harmony with nature and action-oriented. The initiative aims to call on the international community to accelerate the implementation of the UN 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, strive to address development imbalances between and within countries, clarify the objectives, principles and key areas of global development and international development cooperation, further build consensus among all parties and help the international community to jointly address challenges.

Third, a new type of international relations should be promoted. All countries must strengthen their unity and pursue the concept of international relations of mutual respect and mutually beneficial cooperation. This year marks 30 years since the end of the Cold War. There were no winners in the Cold War, the world suffered. A world of peaceful development must build different forms of civilization and be compatible with the different paths of modernization. We must vigorously promote the values common to all humanity - peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom - and abandon small blocs and zero-sum games. We must embrace dialogue rather than confrontation, inclusion rather than exclusion, build a new kind of international relations characterized by mutual respect, fairness and justice and mutually beneficial cooperation, expand the convergence of interests and achieve the greatest possible synergies.

Fourth, global governance must be improved. There is only one international system in the world: the international system based on the UN. There is only one international order - an international order based on international law. And there is only one set of rules - the basic norms governing international relations, based on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. The UN should hold high the banner of true multilateralism and become the central platform for countries to jointly protect global security, share development achievements and jointly chart the future course of the world. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China, in order to promote democracy and the rule of law in international relations, stands ready to cooperate with countries around the world, including Latvia, in the three key areas of security, development and human rights, and to take action to truly fulfil the commitments made by all parties with regard to multilateralism.

Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of Central Committee, made an important speech at the sixth plenary session of the 19th CPC Central Committee. One of the notes adopted at the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on November 11, 2021, is: “With regard to upholding the policy of One Country, Two Systems and promoting national reunification, the Central Committee has adopted a series of measures to address both symptoms and root causes of relevant issues and resolutely implemented the principle that Hong Kong and Macao should be governed by patriots. These moves have helped to restore order in Hong Kong and ensure a turn for the better in the region. All this has laid a solid foundation for advancing law-based governance in Hong Kong and Macao and for securing steady and continued success of the One Country, Two Systems policy.” Does this mean that in the future Beijing will decide who the leaders of Hong Kong and Macao will be by picking who is and who is not a "patriot"?

The year 2021 marks 100 years since the founding of the Communist Party of China. For China, this is a major historical milestone in fulfilling the goals of the first centenary and embarking on a new journey towards the realization of the goals of the second centenary. A short time ago, the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was held. It comprehensively reviewed and summarized the history of the Communist Party of China's efforts over the past century, especially the historical achievements of socialism with Chinese characteristics since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. This plenary session is a bridge between the past and the future and has far-reaching significance for ensuring that China continues to maintain stable and steady development.

The meeting specifically discussed Hong Kong and Macao. The words "Patriots Rule Hong Kong" and "Patriots Rule Macao" appeared for the first time in the communiqué. The adherence to "One Country, Two Systems", "Hong Kong People Rule Hong Kong", "Macao People Rule Macao" and a high degree of autonomy are the basic principles and policies of the Chinese Government towards Hong Kong and Macao, which have not changed and will not change. The principle of "Patriot Governance" has long been a common practice around the world. Many countries, including Latvia, have enshrined this principle in their national laws. "Patriots Rule Hong Kong" and "Patriots Rule Macau" are fundamental principles that must be respected in order to fully and faithfully implement the One Country, Two Systems policy. The correct implementation of this principle is necessary to safeguard China's sovereignty, security and development interests. This will help Hong Kong and Macao to maintain long-term prosperity and stability and ensure the stable and lasting implementation of One Country, Two Systems.

The Communiqué of the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China repeatedly mentions the slogan "uphold Comrade Xi Jinping's core position". Many analysts took this to mean that the Communist Party of China was transforming from a collective ruling system (established by Deng Xiaoping) to one person (Xi Jinping) ruling country?

It is very important for the state and the political party to have a strong core of leadership and scientific theoretical leadership. Adherence to democratic centralism is an excellent tradition and a unique advantage of the Communist Party of China's long-standing practice. It is the greatest advantage of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Democratic centralism is a fundamental system that combines democracy-based centralism with centrally-led democracy. It supports people's democracy throughout the process, ensures broad, continuous and deep participation of the people in the political life of the country, and ensures that the Party leads the people in the effective governance of the country. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, under the leadership of Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Party, China has witnessed historic changes and made a series of significant achievements, such as the full establishment of a moderately prosperous society and the historic eradication of absolute poverty. The Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee emphasized "two consolidations": the consolidation of Xi Jinping's central role as the core of the Central Committee and the Party as a whole, and the leading role of Xi Jinping's idea of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era. It is the choice of Chinese history, the aspirations of the Chinese people and the consensus reached throughout the practice of Chinese people's democracy that play a decisive role in the development of the Communist Party of China and the Chinese state in the new era and in promoting the historic process of the great revival of the Chinese people.

Looking back in history, the Communist Party of China, in view of the gains and losses of political development at home and abroad, has been deeply aware that China's political civilization and political system must be deeply rooted in China's social soil and that it is impossible to copy political systems from other countries. China is following the path of political development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The people's democracy that China is implementing is a democracy of the whole process. All major legislative decisions are prepared in accordance with a certain procedure and through democratic discussion, and adopted in accordance with the principles of scientific and democratic decision-making. The basic aim of democracy of the whole process is to be responsive to the needs of the people; it fully understands the people's wishes, needs and feelings, represents and responds to the people's interests, and has a strong vitality.

On the morning of November 16, Xi Jinping had a virtual meeting with US President Joe Biden. What are the most important results of the meeting concerning Taiwan, China and US trade negotiations and other difficult questions?

The first video meeting between the two leaders in the history of Sino-US relations is a major event in Sino-US and international relations. Both sides had a full and in-depth communication and exchange on strategic, general and fundamental issues related to the development of Sino-US relations, as well as important issues of common interest. The two leaders stressed the importance of Sino-US relations, opposed a "new Cold War", and recognized that China and the US should not be in conflict or confrontation. President Xi Jinping summarized in depth the experiences and lessons learned from the development of Sino-US relations and stressed that China and the US in the new era should adhere to the three principles of mutual respect, peaceful coexistence and mutually beneficial cooperation and strive to promote four priority areas: first, assume the responsibilities of major powers and lead the global response to outstanding challenges. Second, in a spirit of equality and mutual benefit, exchanges at all levels and in all fields should be promoted to create more positive energy in Sino-US relations. Third, disagreements and sensitive issues should be handled constructively to prevent Sino-US relations from going off the rails or spiraling out of control. Fourth, coordination and cooperation on key international and regional hotspot issues should be strengthened to bring more public good to the world.

Getting Sino-US relations back on the right track of healthy and stable development and respecting each other's main interests and main concerns is the right way to control disagreements. The Taiwan issue has always been the most important and sensitive issue in Sino-US relations. At present, there is a new wave of tension in the Taiwan Strait. The main reason for this is that the Taiwanese authorities have been cooperating with external forces and have stepped up the provocations of "independence". Such actions have seriously harmed the vital interests of people on both sides of the Strait and the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation, and have seriously undermined peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait. The true status of the Taiwan issue at the moment and the main content of the one-China principle are: there is only one China in the world, and Taiwan is part of China. The Government of the People's Republic of China is the only legitimate government that represents all of China. It is also the fundamental norm of international relations recognized by UN Resolution 2758. It is widely recognized by the international community and cannot be challenged.

I would like to emphasize the historical and legal fact that Taiwan is part of China and that both sides of the strait belong to one China, and no man and no force can change that. Given the general situation that the majority of the world's countries recognize and support the one-China principle and the general trend that China will be reunified, any political attempt to divide China will not succeed.


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